General information

ICON project
Started: 01/10/2018
Status: Ended
Project contact: Wim Verlinde (BIL)


Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM)

3D printing through a (standard) welding robot

Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (abbreviated: WAAM) is a method to produce metal parts by adding and depositing material layer by layer. This technique uses a (standard) welding robot with a welding wire (electrode wire). These welding robots can deposit several kilos of material per hour, which enables the production of larger parts (up to approximately 2 x 2 m) in a more cost-efficient manner and faster than with other additive manufacturing techniques (usually based on powder).

Quite some interesting results have been achieved with this technology in research centres outside Belgium. For example, in relation to printing spare parts for offshore and maritime applications, the space and aviation sectors, prototypes, repairs, alternative for castings, etc.


Our intention is to also build up this knowledge in Flanders through practical research. We achieve this by linking the competences of the Belgian Welding Institute (BWI) to the knowledge related to metal 3D printing at VIVES and the welding technology research group of KU Leuven.

Typical schematic representation of a WAAM process
Typical schematic representation of a WAAM process - BIL
Project goals

Additive manufacturing forms an essential link within Industry 4.0. Flanders is one of the leaders in the field of Metal Additive Manufacturing or the 3D printing of metal parts. A promising technology that receives however very little attention in Flanders is Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). Metal parts can be built up by using electrode wire and a standard welding robot. Research centres in the countries surrounding Belgium have already achieved many interesting results with regard to this technology.

Like other 3D printing technologies, WAAM can be deployed for the production of unique pieces, small series and prototypes. Parts with a complex (internal) geometry or products that consist of several materials can be fabricated more efficiently through 3D printing than when you use conventional processes. WAAM uses standard welding robots. A welding robot can weld several kilos of material per hour and therefore larger parts can be produced more cost effectively and faster than with other 3D printing technologies (usually based on powder). An additional benefit is that companies will ensure that their investment in a welding robot will pay off better because the robot can be deployed for 3D printing work at times when the robot would otherwise be idle (at night and weekends).

The general objective of this practical research project is to make companies aware of the WAAM technology and to give them the tools to use the possibilities of WAAM themselves.

Specific objectives:

  • Research of the possibilities to convert a random welding robot to obtain a WAAM 3D printing robot.
    KPIs: To organise 3 workshops or company visits related to WAAM printing and converting at least two existing welding robots for WAAM.
  • Give participating companies in-depth insight into the possibilities and restrictions of WAAM and give them the knowledge to get started with this technology themselves based on specific cases.
    KPI: To work out 3 specific cases.
  • Set up training for operators and/or integrating training in existing courses.
    KPIs: To work out one training course in relation to 3D WAAM printing and set up a practical manual for (product) designers.

More info on the project can be found on this webpage.

WAAM project

This project is part of:

Projects in the transition domains

Projects in the transition domains

Projects framing in one of the Flemish transition priorities Circular Economy, Industry 4.0 or Energy.

General information

Theme: Transition domains
Started: 01/01/2018
Program manager: Guido Verhoeven (SIM)